The main objective of cosmetic dental treatment would be restoring the functions of the oral cavity that is esthetically pleasing and acceptable. To achieve this, materials to be used must be biocompatible with human immune response. Biocompatible materials do not cause harm to the tissues and it does not cause any irritation or damage. At the same time, these materials would not compromise functions and esthetics. This is especially true for invasive procedures such as dental implants. The post to be placed within bone must be safe and tolerable by the human body. The prosthesis to be fabricated must be strong, functional and pleasing to the eyes.
With that in mind, researchers have studied different materials that could be used for the treatment of dental implants. All these materials must have great quality that does not compromise the human body.
Early designs of dental post used gold and metal, but the success rate was low and it was abandoned as the material of choice. In the mid-20’s a new material was introduced, a nickel titanium dental post. This new material proved to be a success. It passed the high standards and quality needed for dental posts. Furthermore, it is bioinert, bioactive, biotolerant, and biomimetics.
Bioinert and bioactive means it is capable of osseointegration. Osseointegration is the fusion of the material with bone. This is important because the dental post must be able to bond and adapt to bone for strength and stability. It must be stable to provide as anchorage for the dental prosthesis.
Biotolerant means it is accepted by the body; it is not rejected by the host immune response. It is important that the body’s defence cells would not reject the dental post. If the body’s immune system rejects the dental post, there would be failure of bone adaptation and integration to the post thus, failure of treatment.
Biomimetics means that the body could promote healing and regenerative processes. Aside from the adaptation of bone to the dental post, it is important that the body could heal after placement of the dental post.
In addition to these properties, nickel titanium posts are strong and durable, it must be able to withstand occlusal forces during mastication, and it must resist corrosion. Corrosion of the metal post could lead to systemic problems.
There is a wide range of materials available for prosthodontic rehabilitation. The qualifications needed for these materials would be strength, shade, and form. Selection of the shade of the prosthesis is done prior to surgery. It must be approved by the patient. As for the form and design of the prosthesis mock casts are used. Wax patterns are done on the cast to give an idea and perspective of the prosthesis to be fabricated. Any need for adjustments on the height and contours are done during this stage. Once satisfied with the wax pattern, a laboratory processed prosthesis is fabricated. It is the favourable method for fabrication of the prosthesis because it adds in strength, durability and longevity.
The material of choice for single crowns or 3 to 4 unit cosmetic dental bridges would be porcelain or porcelain fused to metal. Porcelain fused to metal is used to compensate the rigidity of a full porcelain crown or bridge. There are different available shades for porcelain that makes it mimic natural teeth. For complete or partial dentures acrylic is added to mimic gums. As for the denture teeth, acrylic teeth are commonly used, especially for complete dentures.
All these mentioned materials are strong, durable and esthetically pleasing. It is also safe and tolerable by the soft tissues.
With our objectives, modernization and research, more and more materials would be available for use in dental implants….read more