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The History of Dental Implants

Dental implants are the latest treatment procedure when it comes to treating edentulous gums. It restores esthetics as well as oral functions. It involves a two part procedure: surgical placement of a biocompatible post and placement of a dental prosthesis. It restores oral functions as well as esthetics.

allon4The practice of replacing missing teeth began thousands of years ago. Archeological evidence, that dated 4000 years ago, showed that ancient Chinese used carved bamboo to replace their lost teeth. While remains of ancient Egyptian, that dates 2000 years ago, used precious metals and ivory as teeth substitute. At Honduras, remains of a young Mayan showed a mandible with shell fragments as teeth. Evidence of bone and calcular deposits were seen surrounding the shell fragments signifying it was functional.

During the mid-20th century different attempts were done to replace missing or extracted teeth. The first was sub-periosteal implant framework in 1949 by Dr. Goldberg and Dr. Gershkoff. Their design was to closely adapt the implant on bone; they did not insert the implants inside the bone. With that, complications occurred such as exposure of the implants through perforation of the gums. Studies showed a low success rate for this type of implants.

Introduction of the blade implant or the endosseous implants was in 1966 by Dr. Linkow. Unlike the sub-periosteal implants, this was inserted into the bone. This design was prone to infection and had to be removed. Thus, it was not an accepted treatment option.

In 1968, another approach was done, the transosseous implants by Dr. Small. In this design titanium or gold implants pass throughout the thickness of bone. The main problem of this implant, it was too invasive and inconvenient. It required placing the patient under general anesthesia under a hospital setting.

These three designs and approaches all led to failure. However, another study was being conducted that led to the modern development in dental implants.

A research on osseointegration was led by Per-Ingvar Brånemark, a Swedish orthopaedic surgeon specialist implant dentist. Osseiointegration meant fusing or healing with bone. In his research, he placed a titanium rod inside a rabbit’s femur and noticed bone growing and adapting to the titanium rod. He then concluded there is a unique bond between titanium and bone. He applied his study on human knees and hip surgery.

Per-Ingvar Brånemark then later tried using titanium rods inside the oral cavity for the completely edentulous arch. His thought of using titanium rods inside the oral cavity because of the accessibility and high demand. Stabilizing and retention of the denture would be difficult on a highly resorbed bone. Thus, to address this issue, placement of titanium rods or dental implants that serve as anchorage for the dentures was done. The first surgical placement of a titanium dental implant on a human volunteer was done in 1965.

Initially dental implants were a ‘one-size-fits-all.’ The early designs were smooth and polished with the same width. The only variety that was offered was the different lengths. Additional studies were done on the dental implants. All of this aimed to deliver better and longer lasting dental implants that could be used for different purposes. Nowadays, there are different shapes and sizes of dental implants to meet the various demands and needs. The sides were also roughened to increase osseointegration.

Dental implant london are basically categorized into three types: root form implants, zygomatic implants, and small diameter mini implants. Root form implants are the most commonly used implants. There are around 18 different variations on shapes and textures of titanium root form implants.  Zygomatic implants have a distinguishing characteristic of being longer. Being longer, it could be used to anchor to the cheek bone for additional bone support. It is highly recommended for use in cases with severe bone loss on the maxillary arch. Small diameter implants are usually used for orthodontic purposes and prosthesis retention.

It would be no surprise that in the coming years more developments and improvements would be done in hopes of a better dental implant...read more

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The London Smile Care Dental Clinic
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London W1G 6LD

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About London Smile Care

We are proud to provide the widest possible choice of private dentistry to our clients including: General Dentistry, Cosmetic Dentistry, Teeth Whitening, Dental Implants, Hygienist services / treating gum disease, Root Canal Treatments (Endodontics), Conventional and invisible Braces (Orthodontics), Occlusion / TMJ disorders, Sedation for the anxious patients

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